Reference Guide

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Glossary

Glossary

application
A software program that helps you carry out a particular task, such as word processing, image editing, or financial planning.
bi-level data
Image data that is composed of 1 bit per pixel. A pixel is represented by a single bit of digital data that can be expressed as only 1 (light) or 0 (dark).
bit
Short for binary digit. The smallest unit of data in computer processing. A bit can represent one of two values: on, represented by a 1, or off, represented by a 0.
bit/pixel
The unit that indicates the number of bits allocated for a pixel. The larger the bit value, the more detail of a pixel will be reproduced.
brightness
A scanner function to lighten or darken the output image data.
byte
A unit of information consisting of eight bits. A byte can represent a control code or character.
carriage
A component of the scanner that contains the optical sensor and light source for scanning.
color correction
A method of adjusting the color image data for a particular type of device so that the reproduction results are as close as possible to the original colors.
color separation
A process of converting full-color images into a limited number of primary colors. Additive primary colors (red, green, and blue) are used by the scanner, and the subtractive primary colors (cyan, magenta, and yellow) plus black are used for printing press separation.
color space
A method that reproduces a specific color. Additive primary colors (red, green, and blue) are used by the scanner, and subtractive primary colors (cyan, magenta, and yellow) plus black are used for printing press separation.
ColorSync
Color management system for Macintosh that is designed to help you get WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get) color output. This software displays colors on your screen as they exist on the scanned documents, or prints colors as you see them on your screen.
default
A set of values used when no other selections have been made. These are sometimes called factory defaults if the original values have not been changed since the scanner left the factory.
descreening
A scanner function to remove moiré patterns.
document
The item, such as a sheet of paper or a book, that is placed on the document table for the scanner to read.
dpi
Short for dots per inch. A unit of measurement for resolution. The higher the value, the higher the resolution.
DTP
Desktop Publishing system, a system that enables you to edit a publications on a computer.
exposure
A scanner function that lightens or darkens the scanned image data.
gamma
Gamma is a value that expresses the relationship between the input and output of a device. By adjusting the gamma, the brightness of the mid-tones of an image can be changed without affecting the shadows and highlights.
grayscale
Images represented with various shades of gray in addition to black and white.
halftoning
A method of reproducing images with patterns of dots to improve the quality of the output.
ICM
Image Color Matching. Windows color management system designed to help you get WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get) color output. This software displays colors on your screen as they exist on the scanned documents, or prints colors as you see them on your screen.
ink jet printer
A printer that transfers ink onto the paper by spraying the ink through a number of small nozzles.
interface
A piece of hardware, a method, or a standard used for connection between or among computer devices.
laser printer
A printer that uses a laser and the electrophotographic method to print a full page at a time. The laser is used to "paint" a charged drum with light, to which toner is applied and then transferred onto paper.
marquee
A moveable and adjustable frame that marks the area of an image that will be previewed or scanned.
moiré
A moiré is a cross-hatch pattern that appears on scanned images when scanning printed material. It is a result of interference that occurs due to the difference between the pitches of the scanning and the halftone screens.
monochrome
Black and white images, or images represented only by the intensity of luminosity.
newton ring
A newton ring is a ring-shaped stripes pattern that appears on the scanned image when you scan transparency materials. It is the result of interference that occurs due to the duplex membrane on the film.
OCR
Optical Character Recognition
The technology that allows computers to "read" text from physical objects. OCR requires a graphical representation of text to interpret, which usually comes from a scanned image.
PDA
Short form for Personal Digital Assistant, a small personal computer that provides the most portability. A PDA usually contains address book, schedule, and E-mail functions, and can share its data with other computers.
PRINT Image Matching
A standard that allows the scanner to record special information about the images it scans, and relay that information seamlessly to applications and printers compatible with the standard. This information can be used by printers that support the PRINT Image Matching system for enhanced printing results.
pixel
Short for picture element. Each image is composed of a number of pixels. Pixels are also counted in units of dots.
plain bi-level
Bi-level image data without the halftoning process.
preview
A scanner function allows you to see the effects of most EPSON Scan settings, and to make additional image adjustments before scanning.
primary colors
Basic colors.
reflective document
A document printed on opaque materials, such as publication, printed paper, and photo.
resolution
Indication of how finely an image is resolved into pixels. Can be measured in dots per inch (dpi), pixels per inch (ppi), or samples per inch (spi).
scan
An operation performed by the sensor and the carriage. The image is divided into pixels by scanning.
scanning area
The physical size of the image that can be scanned by the scanner.
sRGB
A standard color space used as the default color space within the Windows color management system (ICM 2.0).
threshold
A reference point that is used to determine whether data will be processed as "on" or "off". In the case of color image data, "on" means that a certain color will appear in a pixel or dot, and "off" means that color will not appear there.
tone correction
A method of adjusting the tone curve so that the reproduction results on different types of output devices have gradations similar to the original image.
tone curve
The graph that shows the contrast ratio between the input (original image) and output (image data) in image processing.
unsharp mask
Originally a photographic process in which a sharply focussed and a slightly out-of-focus image are combined to produce a sharper image. This process is simulated by software to produce the same effect.
USB
A Universal Serial Bus. A hardware interface for connecting peripherals such as a keyboard, mouse, scanner, or printer to the computer.


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